Public International Law

Catharine has written on a broad range of public international law topics, including specialised areas of international law.

Her work has principally focused on the capacity of international law to do justice and on the efficiency and legitimacy of international dispute settlement mechanisms.

Through a series of books, articles, and other publications, she has shown that international law has the potential to do justice and that international courts and tribunals do not need to choose between applying international law or doing justice.

Settlement of international disputes

Diplomatic and adjudicative means of dispute settlement, interstate and mixed disputes, including negotiations, mediation, arbitration, international courts.

International courts and tribunals

Design and functioning of international courts and tribunals, including topics such as appointment of adjudicators, nationality on the international bench, financing and costs, procedural principles.

Equity and equitable principles

Equity in international law, equity as justice, power of an international court or tribunal to apply equity, ex aequo et bono mandate.

Sources of international law

Treaty law, formation and identification of customary international law, general principles of law.

Treaty interpretation

Treaty interpretation, subsequent agreements, interpretation of treaties over time.

Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions against Russia in the wake of the military aggression against Ukraine.